Research articles

Thornton, K. (2014). A QEEG activation methodology which obtains 100% accuracy in the discrimination of traumatic brain injured from normal and does the learning disabled show the brain injury pattern?, Neuroregulation, 1 (3-4), 209-217. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15540/nr.1.3-4.209

http://www.neuroregulation.org/article/view/14423

Abstract

Previous research has focused on determining whether the quantitative EEG (QEEG) can discriminate a traumatic brain injury (TBI) participant from a normal individual. The research has differed with respect to the critical variables involved in the discrimination task. All the research has limited its approach to the collection of eyes-closed data and most confine themselves to less than 32 Hz. The present research employs four cognitive activation tasks, an eyes-closed task, 19 locations, Spectral Correlation Coefficient (SCC) and phase algorithms in the beta2 frequency range (32–64 Hz), and the relative power of beta2 in six frontal locations to obtain 100% correct identification in original discriminant analysis. In addition, 50 random misclassifications—involving different participants—across the five tasks in a group of 196 subjects were correctly identified as misclassifications. To determine if a learning disability would show a similar pattern to a TBI pattern, a preliminary analysis of a group of 94 normal and learning disability (LD) participants were examined for their QEEG differences. The pattern evident in the analysis for the LD group (decreased coherence and phase alpha) was not the pattern evident in the TBI group, while the TBI pattern of decreased coherence and phase beta2 was not dominant in the LD group.

Kirtley E. Thornton, Dennis P. Carmody (2014). The Coordinated Allocation of Resource (CAR) Electrophysiological Patterns of Recalling Names of Faces in Children, Adolescents and Adults and the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the Brain, NeuroRegulation, Vol. 1(1), 87-104. 2014 doi:10.15540/nr.1.1.87

http://www.neuroregulation.org/article/view/13685

Abstract

The quantitative EEG (QEEG) has proven to be an important methodology in the understanding of brain functioning. The Coordinated Allocation of Resource (CAR) model maintains that cognitive effectiveness depends on the employment of a specific set of resources for specific cognitive tasks, which overlap in some situations. The model employs the flashlight metaphor in understanding the coherence and phase relations between locations. The metaphor asserts that each location can function as a flashlight that sends out a beam to the other locations within a frequency. The beam can involve all the other locations or be a mini-flashlight that involves only selected locations. The task of recalling names of faces was examined in the context of the CAR model. The developmental changes that occur during the encoding of names of faces include increases in diffusely located communication connections involving theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–13 Hz), increases in the relative power values of the beta variables (13–64 Hz), peak frequency of beta1 (13–32 Hz) and alpha, decreases in communication patterns involving the beta2 (32–64 Hz) and delta (0–4 Hz) frequencies as well as decreasing values of variables involving the lower frequencies (delta, theta), relative power values of alpha and magnitudes of alpha, beta2 and peak amplitudes of beta2. The face-name task is both a verbal and visual task as the participant is hearing the name while he looks at the photograph. Variables that relate to success during the encoding task involve diffuse increases in flashlight activity from F7 and T3 across all frequencies to and between central locations. The QEEG variables that relate to immediate and delayed recall success involve flashlights from T3 across 4 frequencies, F7 involving 3 frequencies and the appearance of a heuristic central processing unit‖ involving frontal (F3, Fz, F4), central (C3, Cz, C4) and posterior (P3, Pz, P4) locations.

Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2013). The Relation between Memory improvement and QEEG changes in three clinical groups as a result of EEG biofeedback treatment, Journal of Neurotherapy, 17(2). 116-132. DOI: 10.1080/10874208.2013.785183

Abstract:

It is important to understand the relation between changes in the quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables and memory changes as a result of the EEG biofeedback treatment. With this goal in mind, the senior author reviewed his clinical files from the last 5 years and examined the QEEG data addressing relative power and coherence changes and memory (auditory and reading) improvements. The groups involved included (a) normal individuals wanting to improve their cognitive functioning, (b) traumatic brain injured (TBI) subjects, and (c) þ (d) subjects who can best be classified as having a specific learning disability (SLD). The SLD group was divided between those who are (c) older than 14 (adults) and those who are (d) younger than 14 (children) in order to reference the appropriate age-related normative group values. The analysis revealed significant improvements in auditory and reading memory across all groups as well as changes on the QEEG variables. All of the groups were performing above the normative reference group on measures of auditory and reading memory in terms of percentage differences (24–97%) and standard deviations (þ1.28–1.85). The average auditory memory SD improvement was þ1.52, whereas the average percentage change was 82%. For the reading task the average memory standard deviation improvement was 1.38, whereas the percentage improvement was 154%. The experimental group was performing 1.66 SD (68%) above the control group on auditory memory and .90 SD (52%) above the control group on reading memory measures. For the QEEG variables, the average raw value of the Spectral Correlation Coefficient (SCC) change for alpha was 6.1 points (2.09 SD), for SCC beta1 (13–32Hz) 6.53 points (1.81 SD), and for beta2 (32–64Hz) 7.5 points (1.77 SD). The changes on the relative power measures were less dramatic, albeit significant. These results underlie the importance of addressing the SCC values in EEG biofeedback treatment protocols.

Thornton, K.E. & Carmody, D.P. (2012). Symbol Digit and the Quantitative EEG, Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:3, 210-222. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2012.705762

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10874208.2012.705762

Abstract:

The coordination of allocation resource model of brain functioning examines the relations etween quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables and cognitive performance on specific tasks. The Digit Symbol (DS) subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales has proven to be a sensitive measure in a variety of clinical conditions. A conceptually and empirically similar task (Symbol Digit [SD]) was employed to examine the QEEG correlates of successful functioning. A sample of 119 participants engaged in a modified SD test for 200 seconds while QEEG data were obtained. The participant verbally provided the matching number to the examiner to avoid any motor component of the task. There were negative relations between performance and magnitudes across almost all locations and across a wide bandwidth (0–64 Hz). Negative relations to SD performance were also observed for increased relative power of beta1, whereas positive relations were found for absolute values of coherences of alpha, beta1 (13–32 Hz), and beta2 (32–64 Hz). The results showed the importance of spectral correlation coefficients (SCC) in cognitive functioning, in particular the SCC values within the frontal region and in the 13–64 frequency range.

Thornton, K, Carroll, C. (2010). The Coordinated Allocation of Resource (CAR) Model Intervention for Reading, Problems in two clinics, Neuroconnections, 8-16

Abstract

Attaining the ability to read is a fundamental goal of the educational system. However, the attainment of this goal has been problematic and fraught with problems. Over the past several decades the special education roles have been rising along with the increased cost to federal government, state and county budgets, with no real end in sight. The problem is further compounded with the lack of an effective, cost effective intervention program. This article presents the data on an alternate approach, activation database guided EEG biofeedback, for several individual cases. Pre and post reading memory performance data is also presented for 7 children with a history of learning/reading problems. The initial average memory performance for the group was -1.39 standard deviations (SD) below the norm. Following the treatment the group’s performance reflected an average SD gain of 2.40 (or 334%) and was -.27 SD below the norm. The reading time for the material decreased from 100 to 72 seconds. Thus the results present an encouraging alternative to the intervention methodologies currently employed.

Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2010). Depression, Love, Happiness and the qEEG in a single case study, Biofeedback, Winter 2010, Vol 38 (#1), 13-18. DOI: 10.5298/1081-5937-38.1.13

http://www.aapb-biofeedback.com/doi/abs/10.5298/1081-5937-38.1.13?journalCode=biof

Abstract

The relations between the emotions and the brain’s functioning have been the subject of scientific investigation over the past decade. This report continues this investigation in a single case study which required the subject to evoke different emotional states (happiness, love, depression) and rate the emotional states on an intensity scale while brain activity was monitored by quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). The differences in emotional states indicated a predominant qEEQ activation of the beta2 (13-64 Hz) frequency range for all emotional states with specificity of left hemisphere and temporal lobe activation for happiness and right hemisphere for depression. The response pattern also indicated a greater activation of central and posterior locations for the emotional states.

Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2009). Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: QEEG Biofeedback Treatment Protocols, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, (34) 1, 59-68.

DOI 10.1007/s10484-009-9075-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19199027

Abstract

Interventions for improvement of cognitive problems in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) include electroencephalography biofeedback, also known as neurofeedback. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns are assessed in TBI patients and then compared to a database obtained from a normative population. Deviations in QEEG patterns from the normative group are the basis for an intervention plan. While QEEG patterns, obtained under an eyes closed, resting condition, provide information about deviations at rest, QEEG patterns obtained while the patient engages in cognitive tasks reflect specific deficiencies in brain functioning. This paper reviews and assesses QEEG patterns collected under both resting conditions as well as cognitive tasks. The article provides a theoretical and empirical base for QEEG interventions with TBI.

Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2009). Eyes-Closed and Activation QEEG Databases in predicting Cognitive Effectiveness and the Inefficiency Hypothesis, Journal of Neurotherapy, (13) 1, 1-22.

DOI: 10.1080/10874200802429850

https://www.academia.edu/6420272/Eyes-Closed_and_Activation_QEEG_Databases_in_Predicting_Cognitive_Effectiveness_and_the_Inefficiency_Hypothesis

ABSTRACT

Background. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) databases have been developed for the eyes closed (EC) condition. The development of a cognitive activation database is a logical and necessary development for the field. Method. Brain activation was examined by QEEG during several tasks including EC rest, visual attention (VA), auditory attention (AA), listening to paragraphs presented auditorily and reading silently. The QEEG measures obtained in the EC and simple, non-cognitive attention task that were significantly related to subsequent cognitive performance were not the same variables which accounted for success during the cognitive task. Results. There were clear differences between relative power, microvolt, coherence and phase values across these different tasks. Conclusions. The conclusions reached are (1) the associations among QEEG variables are complex and vary by task; (2) the QEEG variables which predict cognitive performance under task demands are not the same as the variables which predict to subsequent performance from the EC or simple, non-cognitive attention tasks; (3) a cognitive activation database is clinically useful; and (4) an hypothesis of brain functioning is proposed to explain the findings. The coordinated allocation of resources (CAR) hypothesis states that cognitive effectiveness is a product of multiple specific activities in the brain, which vary according to the task; and (5) the average response pattern does not involve the variables that are critical to success at the task, thus indicating an inefficiency of the normal human brain.

Thornton, K. (2008). Efficacy of Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Interventions of QEEG-Guided Biofeedback, Computers, Strategies, and Medications, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 101-124. DOI: 10.1007/s10484-008-9056-z

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10484-008-9056-z

Abstract

The onset of cognitive rehabilitation brought with it a hope for an effective treatment for the traumatic brain injured subject. This paper reviews the empirical reports of changes in cognitive functioning after treatment and compares the relative effectiveness of several treatments including computer interventions, cognitive strategies, EEG biofeedback, and medications. The cognitive functions that are reviewed include auditory memory, attention and problem solving. The significance of the change in cognitive function is assessed in two ways that include effect size and longevity of effect. These analyses complement the previously published meta-reviews by adding these two criteria and include reports of EEG biofeedback, which is shown to be an effective intervention for auditory memory.

Thornton, K. (2006). The qEEG in the Lie Detection Problem; The Localization of Guilt, J. of Neurotherapy, 31-45. DOI: 10.1300/J184v09n03_03

https://www.academia.edu/5588099/The_qEEG_in_the_Lie_Detection_Problem_The_Localization_of_Guilt

SUMMARY

Previous attempts by the author to discern if the qEEG could be an effective instrument in the detection of a lie resulted in positive results (100% effective, 73% of the time; Thornton, 1995). The procedure failed to make a decision in 4 of the 15 events being examined. A new design was created which requires no verbal response of the participant. The participant in the present study was presented with four instructions: (a) allow yourself to be anxious, (b) listen to stories of events of which you have no direct experience or knowledge, (c) listen to stories of self-reported true (real crimes) events which you participated in and feel guilty about your participation, and (d) block the real crime stories (events provided by participant) as they are read to you. The participant’s eyes were closed during the entire collection of data and no verbal response was elicited. Analysis of the different cognitive/emotional states with qEEG measures revealed an intriguing predominant pattern of left hemisphere/posterior (dorsal) activation for the experience of anxiety, right hemisphere (right temporal, in particular) activation for the experiencing of guilt and more centrally located activations when the participant attempted to block the real stories.

Thornton, K. (2006). Subtype Analysis of Learning Disability by Quantitative Electroencephalography Patterns, Biofeedback, 34 (3), 106-113

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238732284_SPECIAL_ISSUE_Subtype_Analysis_of_Learning_Disability_by_Quantitative_Electroencephalography_Patterns

Abstract

The article addresses the growing prevalence and expense of learning disabilities. The author reviews the various current diagnostic classification systems based on psycho-educational, DSM IV and other classification schemes. He argues that none of the current classifications clearly dictates precise interventions by diagnostic category. He advocates for a functional classification based on the use of modern neuroscience techniques. He reviews the emerging research using quantitative EEG, showing clear EEG signatures of several learning disabilities, and advocates for developing a more precise link between classification and therapeutics.

Thornton, K. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury, Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am, 14, 137-162

Abstract

Reading disabilities present major challenges to the educational system. The estimated prevalence rate for learning disabilities is 15% of the student population, with 6.5 million children requiring special education in 2002. Approximately 63% of these special education children have specific learning disabilities or speech and language problems without a concomitant physical disability. Between 28% and 43% of inmates in adult correctional facilities require special education (versus 5% in normal population), and 82% of prison inmates in the United States are school dropouts. Large financial and social costs are associated with programs to address learning disabilities. The federal government spent $350 billion over a 20-year period on special education programs, and New York City spends $55,300 per year for each incarcerated youth.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2004.07.001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15564056

Thornton, K. (2004). A Cost/Benefit Analysis of Different Intervention Models for the LD/Special Education Student, Biofeedback, Winter, 9-13

http://www.futurehealth.org/articles/A-Cost-Benefit-Analysis-of-by-Kirtley-Thornton-090721-280.html

Abstract

Since the decade of the brain was declared in 1990, there have been impressive advances in the area of neurodiagnostic instrumentation measuring the physical functioning of the brain and providing a deeper understanding of the functioning of the brain. However, scientific advances allowing us to alter the mind’s functioning have not followed the speed and sophistication of these developments in assessment and understanding. This article presents a cost/benefit analysis across several remediation approaches for Learning Disabilities, and shows the superiority of one method. The method is the development of an activation QEEG database (0-64 Hz) to guide intervention protocols applying QEEG biofeedback to the treatment of learning disabilities. Outcome studies of this method have provided evidence of its ability to improve memory ability in the learning disabled student an average of 3 standard deviations.

Thornton, K. (2003). The electrophysiological effects of a brain injury on auditory memory functioning. The QEEG correlates of impaired memory, ArchClin Neuropsychol. 18(4), 363-78.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14591452

link will provide free full text

ABSTRACT

The effect of a brain injury on the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables during an auditory memory activation condition was examined with 56 normal subjects and 85 mild traumatic brain injured (MTBI) subjects. An analysis was conducted on the different response patterns of the two groups, the variables which were correlated with memory performance in the brain injured group and the variables which predicted the memory score for the combined two groups (normal and brain injured). The three conditions included the input task, the immediate recall and delayed recall task. The consistent effect of a brain injury was a lowering of the connectivity patterns in the beta1 and beta2 frequencies (phase and coherences) and increases predominantly in the relative power of beta1 (13-32 Hz), which were correlated with the differences in recall. There is a subtle shift to right hemisphere/right temporal functioning and employment of the higher beta1 and beta2 frequencies (phase and coherence) in the response pattern of the MTBI subject. Memory functioning is predominantly positively correlated with connection activity (phase and coherence) and negatively correlated with beta activation at specific locations.

Thornton, K. (2002). Electrophysiology of Visual Memory for Korean Characters, Current Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 85-108

Abstract

An investigation into the QEEG parameters of effective cognitive functioning of visual memory for six Korean figures was conducted employing 69 normal subjects. Subjects studied the figures for 1 minute, engaged in an immediate 30-second quiet recall period, which was then followed by the subjects drawing the figures. A delayed recall of 45 minutes later followed the same methodology. The recall performances were correlated with the QEEG variables. For the input stage, total memory was determined predominantly by specific patterns of left frontal (F7, F3, Fp1) projections (phase and coherence activity) and left central/posterior (T3, C3, P3) phase (Alpha and Beta1(13–32 Hz)) projections. Success during immediate silent recall was determined by left frontal (F7, Fp1, F3) projections and left central/posterior (T3, T5, O1, P3) projections in the Beta frequencies. Long term–delayed recall was determined by O1 coherence Alpha projection activity and Symmetry of Beta2 (32–64 Hz) at F8. Degree of activation variables (from visual attention and eyes closed) showed different patterns of successful activations.

Thornton, K. (2002). Electrophysiology (qEEG) of Effective Reading Memory: Towards a Generator/Activation Theory of the Mind, Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(3),37-66.

DOI: 10.1300/J184v06n03_04

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v06n03_04

Abstract

An investigation into the relationships between Quantitative EEG (QEEG) and memory scores for reading material was conducted employing 38 normal (no evidence of neurological disorders, learning disabilities, left handedness) right-handed subjects. There were three conditions during which QEEG data was collected: 1) subject reading a story silently for 100 seconds, 2) subject engaging in an immediate 30-second quiet recall period, which was followed by subjects orally recalling (QEEG data not collected) what they had read (to obtain the memory score), a delayed recall assessment, about 45 minutes later, followed the same methodology of 3) quiet recall (QEEG data recorded) and subsequent oral recall. The reading and recall performances were correlated with QEEG variables.

Thornton, K. (2002). The Improvement/Rehabilitation of Memory Functioning with Electrophysiological Interventions, Neurorehabilitation, Vol. 17 (1), 69-81.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11056409

Abstract

Five clinical case studies are presented which addressed the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback with individuals impaired in auditory memory ability. A normative QEEG activation database of 59 right-handed subjects was developed, which delineated the QEEG variables which were positively related to auditory memory performance (paragraphs). Subjects who had experienced a brain injury underwent the same procedure employed in the development of the database. The subject’s values on the effective parameters of memory functioning were determined. Neurotherapy (EEG biofeedback) interventions were determined by the subject’s deviation from the normative reference group in terms of the relevant QEEG parameters of effective auditory memory (paragraph recall). Five subjects (1 normal, 3 brain injured and 1 subject who had a left frontal hematoma) underwent interventions directed towards the electrophysiological dysfunction, which is specifically involved in memory. The subject’s improvements ranged from 39% to 134% as a result of the interventions and either maintained or improved in all of the subjects who had a follow up assessment that occurred from one month to one year following termination of treatment.

Thornton, K. (2000). Exploratory Analysis: Mild Head Injury, Discriminant Analysis with High Frequency Bands (32-64 Hz) under Attentional Activation Conditions & Does Time Heal?, Journal of Neurotherapy, 1-10.

DOI:10.1300/J184v03n03_01

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v03n03_01

Abstract

OEEG variables (5 activation. 2 relationship variables, 19 locations and 5 bands tip 10 64 Hertz) were collected under three activation conditions (auditory attention, visual attention and listening to paragraphs) on 84 subjects, consisting of32 mild head-injured subjects (no loss of consciousness) and 52 normals over the age of 14. Additional variables collected included years of education, time since accident. sex, handedness and Shipley Institute of living measures of IQ, verbal and abstraction scores. The results were encouraging for future development of a discriminant employing activation conditions, as the results varied from 88% to 100% correct classification. Very few of the variables, which distinguished the groups tinder the three conditions or were used in the discriminant analysis. were shown to increase as the time since accident increased. This result, tentatively, indicates little effect of time on the improvement in the electrophysiological functioning of the brain. Time (spontaneous improvement) does not appear to heal the brain in any significant manner.

Thornton, K. (2000). Electrophysiology of Auditory Memory of Paragraphs, Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 4(3), 45-73. DOI:10.1300/J184v04n03_04

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v04n03_04

Abstract

An investigation into the QEEG parameters of effective auditory memory for paragraphs was conducted employing sixty normal right-handed subjects. Four stories were read to the subjects. The subjects engaged in an immediate thirty-second quiet recall period, which was followed by the subjects recalling the stories outloud. A delayed recalled assessment (about forty five minutes) followed the same methodology. The recall performances were correlated with the QEEG variables. For the input period the absolute levels of the Alpha coherence and phase generators from the left temporal lobe (T3), as well as the coherence Alpha (C3, P3, F7) were the predominant determinants of success in addition to F7 coherence Beta1 (13-32 Hz) and phase Beta1 from F8. Immediate recall was determined by the absolute levels of the projections from T3 (coherence and phase Alpha, symmetry Beta2 (32-64 Hz) at T3 and peak frequency of Beta1 at T5. Long-term recall was determined by the T3 generators (phase and coherence Alpha), F7 projections (phase Theta, coherence and phase Alpha, phase Beta1, coherence Beta2), Fp1 and F3 projections (coherence Beta2), and Fp1 phase Beta1. Degree of activation (from eyes closed) revealed additional variables relevant to success.

Thornton, K. (2000). Improvement/Rehabilitation of Memory Functioning with Neurotherapy/QEEG Biofeedback, Aspen Pub./JHTR, 1-13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11056409

Abstract

This article presents a new approach to the remediation of memory deficits by studying the electrophysiological functioning involved in memory and applying biofeedback techniques. A Quantitative EEG (QEEG) activation database was obtained with 59 right-handed subjects during two auditory memory tasks (prose passages and word lists). Memory performance was correlated with the QEEG variables. Clinical cases were administered the same QEEG activation study to determine their deviations from the values that predicted success for the reference group. EEG biofeedback interventions were designed to increase the value (to normal levels) of the specific electrophysiological variable, which was related to successful memory function and deviant in the subject. Case examples are presented that indicate the successful use of this intervention style in normal subjects and in subjects with brain injury; improvement cannot be fully explained by spontaneous recovery, given the time postinjury. Five cases (two normal, two subjects with brain injury, and one subject who had stereotactic surgery of the hippocampus for seizure control) are presented. Improvements ranged from 68% to 181% in the group of patients with brain injury, as a result of the interventions.

Thornton, K. (2000). Rehabilitation of Memory Functioning in Brain Injured Subjects with EEG Biofeedback, Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15 (6), 1285-1296.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11056409

Abstract

Five clinical case studies are presented which addressed the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback with individuals impaired in auditory memory ability. A normative QEEG activation database of 59 right-handed subjects was developed, which delineated the QEEG variables which were positively related to auditory memory performance (paragraphs). Subjects who had experienced a brain injury underwent the same procedure employed in the development of the database. The subject’s values on the effective parameters of memory functioning were determined. Neurotherapy (EEG biofeedback) interventions were determined by the subject’s deviation from the normative reference group in terms of the relevant QEEG parameters of effective auditory memory (paragraph recall). Five subjects (1 normal, 3 brain injured and 1 subject who had a left frontal hematoma) underwent interventions directed towards the electrophysiological dysfunction, which is specifically involved in memory. The subject’s improvements ranged from 39% to 134% as a result of the interventions and either maintained or improved in all of the subjects who had a follow up assessment that occurred from one month to one year following termination of treatment.

Thornton, K. (1999). Exploratory Investigation into Mild Brain Injury and Discriminant Analysis with High Frequency Bands (32-64 Hz), Head Injury, 477-488.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10462146

ABSTRACT

QEEG variables (5 activation, 2 relationship variables, 19 locations and 5 bands up to 64 Hertz) were collected under eyes closed condition (under both 32 Hertz and 64 Hertz conditions) on 91 subjects, consisting of 32 mild brain-injured subjects (no loss of consciousness greater than 20 minutes) and 52 normals over the age of 14. An additional 7 subjects who were unconscious greater than 20 minutes was available for analysis. Previous discriminant function analysis developed by Thatcher, R. W. et al. (7) was employed on the eyes closed 32 Hertz condition to ascertain its robustness for time periods greater than a year and for significant periods of unconsciousness. A separate discriminant for subjects was developed employing only frontal high frequency coherence figures. The Thatcher Discriminant could reliably (79%) identify all subjects up to 43 years post accident. The high frequency discriminant effectively identified 87% of the brain injured across all time periods (without significant loss of consciousness) and 100% of subjects within 1 year of accident. The combination of the discriminants resulted in a 100% accuracy rate for the 39 brain injured subjects for which discriminant values were available.

Thornton, K. (1996). The Nature of Artifacting the qEEG, Journal of Neurotherapy, 1 (3), 31-40.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/252308788_On_the_Nature_of_Artifacting_the_qEEG

Abstract

An analysis of the effect of possible muscle artifact on the qEEG upon the relative power, coherence, phase, pkamp, and pkfrq figures is presented in terms of four issues and with three subjects. The study involves the: 1) analysis of muscle activity and its relationship to other muscle and cortical leads, 2) analysis of how muscle activity might be manifested in other cortical leads, 3) effects of possible cortical muscle artifacts on qEEG variables. In Experiment 1 two artifact leads were placed on the neck muscles and cortical positions T3 and F7 to conduct the first analysis. Experiment 2 was part of a large experiment in which one of the subjects had four artifact leads placed on the heart, under the right and left ear, on the neck and below the right eye. In this experiment all the epochs were selected which appeared to be eye movement type artifact or gross artifact and labeled as such in a statistical program.

Thornton, K. (1996). The FIG Functional Integrative QEEG Technique and the Functional Structure of Memory Functioning in Normals and Head Injured Subjects Journal of Neurotherapy: Investigations in Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience, 2:1, 23-42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J184v02n01_04

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J184v02n01_04?journalCode=wneu20

Abstract

A method was developed to simultaneously combine QEEG signals and video audio input signals in an attempt to study how the mind processes information during memory tasks and other tasks (mathematics, emotions, visualizing, verbalization, etc.). The California Verbal Memory test was chosen as the verbal memory task. Three subjects were evaluated. One subject was a victim of a recent car accident and experienced a closed head injury. Two subjects were chosen as normal controls to evaluate differences in the processing of information. As the method represents a new methodology in the study of brain processes, it will be referred to as the FIG method (Functional Integrative QEEG). The results indicate that phenomena exist which cannot be explained by dipole analysis or other concepts currently in use. A concept of phase /coherence generators is postulated to explain these phenomena. An examination of part of the results of the memory functioning aspect of the research is presented in terms of differences between the head injured subject and the normal subjects indicating the importance of the phase concept in memory and of the complexity of mental processes. This research is an exploratory endeavor with a new methodology designed to discover how modern theories of memory processing can be related to electrophysiological functioning.

Thornton, K. (1994). The Anatomy of The Lie: A qEEG Investigation into Lie Detection, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 22, (3/4), 179-210

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241746485_THE_ANATOMY_OF_THE_LIE

Abstract

Previous attempts by the author to discern if the qEEG could be an effective instrument in the detection of a lie resulted in positive results (100% effective, 73% of the time) (Thornton, 1995). The procedure failed to make a decision in 4 of the 15 events being examined. A new design was created which requires no verbal response of the participant. The participant in the present study was presented with 4 instructions: 1) allow yourself to be anxious; 2) listen to stories of events of which you have no direct experience or knowledge; 3) listen to stories of self-reported true (real crimes) events which you participated in and feel guilty about your participation; 4) block the real crime stories (events provided by participant) as they are read to you. The participant’s eyes were closed during the entire collection of data and no verbal response was elicited. Analysis of the different cognitive/emotional states with qEEG measures revealed an intriguing predominant pattern of left hemisphere/posterior (dorsal/caudal) activation for the experience of anxiety, right hemisphere (right temporal in particular) activation for the experiencing of guilt and more centrally located activations when the participant attempted to block the real stories.

Articles Presently in Peer Review Process

Thornton, K. Electrophysiology of Autobiographical Memory, the binding problem and holography

Abstract

Objective: To understand the networks involved in autobiographical memory, from the point of view of the quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables, the Coordinated Allocation of Resource Model, holographic theory and the binding problem.

Experimental Design: Non-clinical participants (N=73) underwent an autobiographical memory task while QEEG data was recorded. They were asked to recall the earliest memory they could recall and then provide their age at the time of the memory.

Principal Observations: For the child group the earlier the age of the memory was associated with increased values of phase beta2 (32-64 Hz) and left posterior beta2 variables. For the adolescent and adult the earlier the age of recall was associated with phase beta1 (13-32 Hz) connection activity in central locations and left hemisphere.

Conclusion: Memory processes are not confined to single frequencies or locations, but employ multiple locations and frequencies across the entire bandwidth (0-64 Hz) in both a positive and negative manner.

Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. Quantitative EEG patterns of Auditory Memory: Age and Sex differences

Abstract

Objective: To understand the networks in auditory memory, from the point of view of the quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables.

Experimental Design: Non-clinical participants (N=138) underwent an auditory memory task; The QEEG was recorded during the encoding, immediate and delayed recall tasks. The data were analyzed for developmental patterns, sex differences and the relation between the absolute value of the variable and the degree of activation from the eyes closed baseline for the QEEG variables in the 0—64 Hz range.

Principal Observations: There were marked differences in the QEEG variables that related to performance across the three age groups and the two sexes. The developmental and degree of activation variables are infrequently the same variables involved in the performance as indicated by the absolute level of variable.

Conclusion: Auditory memory involves all the frequencies of the quantitative EEG in terms of arousal and coherence and phase patterns.

Thornton, K. The Electrophysiology of Recalling Word Lists

Abstract

Objective: The research seeks to describe the relation between quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables and memory performance for word lists.

Experimental Design: QEEG data was collected on 87 non-clinical participants (ages 8-71) while they engaged in recall 5 word lists of 15 words each.

Principal Observations: The effective patterns during the initial one second encoding task (hearing) of the words involve connection patterns across the frequencies (4-32 Hz) with a focus on phase beta1 relations, left hemisphere (LH) connection patterns in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta1(13-32 Hz) frequency and central / posterior relative power of beta1. Memory for individual words during the processing period (one second after presentation) indicate positive QEEG relations to recall in the connection activity (0-32 Hz), frontal phase beta1, LH connection patterns and central / posterior relative power of beta1 (13-32 Hz). Three variables (frontal phase beta1, T3 phase alpha, & LH coherence theta) were involved in successful recall across all four tasks.

Conclusion: The QEEG correlates of memory functioning involve all the frequencies (0-64 Hz) in varying degrees.

Thornton, K. Quantitative EEG correlates of Recall of a “to do” list and relevance to brain functioning theories

Abstract

Problem: How does the electrophysiology of the brain relate to perspective memory (a “to do” list)? The goal of the research was to determine the developmental patterns in the child and adolescent and adult groups and determine the effective / non-effective QEEG correlates of recall performance and relate these findings to present day theories of brain functioning.

Method: Participants provide a list of 10 items, in the beginning of the evaluation, that need to be completed that day. They were asked to recall the items (with their eyes closed) at the end of the evaluation.

Results: In the under age 12 group, the positive developmental pattern of the QEEG variables show broad increases in alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta1 (13-32 Hz), coherence and phase alpha. The only variable which overlaps between development and performance for this group is the relative power of beta1 variable.

In the over age 12 group (adolescents and adults), the positive development patterns show diffuse increases in coherence and phase relations involving the 0-32 Hz range and continued increases in beta variables. The sole variable which relates to performance in this group was the peak frequency of beta2 in all locations, which was not present in the developmental data for this age group.

Conclusion: The results provide important clues for how the electrophysiology of the brain relates to an important cognitive task and challenges some existing theories of brain functioning.

Thornton, K. The Electrophysiology of Multiplication

Abstract

The mastery of the multiplication tables is a basic goal of mathematical education. This research addresses the developmental patterns occurring in this task as well as the QEEG variables which relate to performance in non-clinical children and adolescent / adult groups. The variables which relate to successful performance for the children include all locations for RPA, central / posterior RPB1, left posterior peak amplitude beta1, peak frequency alpha and magnitude beta1 and frontal connection patterns involving coherence alpha (CA), phase beta1 (PB1) and phase beta2 (PB2) (32-64 Hz). The variables involved in successful performance for this group involve diffuse connection activity solely involving coherence beta2.

Thornton, K. The Electrophysiology of the Pronunciation of Nonsense Words

Abstract

Problem: The understanding of the electrophysiology of the pronunciation of nonsense words has important educational implications.

Method: Two groups (children, adolescents and adults) were engaged in pronunciation of nonsense word tasks. The correlations between QEEG variables and performance were examined as well as developmental patterns.

Results: Successful pronunciation by children relates to higher values of RPB1 and PKFA in all locations. For the adolescent and adult group successful pronunciation predominantly relates to the alpha frequency (left posterior peak amplitude alpha, central / posterior PKFA, magnitude alpha) as well as involving left posterior peak amplitude beta1. Frontal locations show increases in coherence and phase delta with success.

Conclusions: The information can be useful in the area of EEG biofeedback directed educational interventions.

Thornton, K. Electrophysiology for where objects are placed

Abstract

The ability to recall where items are placed is an important cognitive ability, as individuals will frequently forget where they put the car keys, grandmother’s wedding ring, etc. This research looks at that ability from the point of view of the quantitative EEG (QEEG) in terms of developmental patterns and correlates of performance.

The data obtained indicated developmental patterns of broad increases in coherence and phase relations (0-32 Hz), increases in relative power values (13-64 Hz), peak frequency of theta, alpha, beta1 (13-32 Hz), beta2 (32-64 Hz) and diffuse decreases in variables (magnitudes, relative power, peak amplitude) associated with the frequencies between 0-8 Hz, frontal beta2 (32-64 Hz) values, central / posterior magnitude of alpha values. Additionally, decreases in coherence and phase relations in the 32-64 Hz show decreases with age most notably from the left temporal locations (T3-phase) and left hemisphere coherence beta2 (T3, F7). During the recall task the dominant successful pattern was one of diffuse involvement of relative power of alpha (8-13 Hz), coherence alpha from Fp2, F7 and left hemisphere coherence alpha, while variables negatively related to recall involve coherence and phase beta2 relations.

Thornton, K. The Coordinated Allocation Resource (CAR) model of Electrophysiological Patterns of Problem Solving (Ravens Matrices) in Adolescents and Adults

Abstract

This research article examines the effective and ineffective electrophysiological response pattern of adolescents and adults while they are engaged in solving Ravens matrices (series E-F?). The research employs the Coordinated Allocation of Resource (CAR) model of brain functioning, which is explained at chp-neurotherapy.com.

The developmental analysis revealed large increases in coherence (theta and alpha) and phase (theta and alpha) relations involving multiple locations. There were significant decreases in SCC and phase values (alpha, beta1, beta2) relations with beta2 showing the greatest value decrease. In terms of arousal (magnitude, relative power, peak frequency, peak amplitude) variables there were significant decreases in variables involving the lower frequencies (delta, theta, alpha) and occipital beta. Significant increases in the arousal variables were present in the peak frequency of all frequencies, relative power variables involving beta1 (13-32 Hz) and beta2 (32-64 Hz), and frontal beta activity (PKFA, PKAB1, PKAB2, MB1, MB2, PKFB2).

Significant relations to successful performance involved left frontal flashlight activity (F7CA, F7PB1, F7PB2, F3CA, F3CB1, F3PB2) and right hemisphere flashlight activity (F8CA) and T4CB2. Arousal variables associated with success involved frontal RPA, posterior / central PKAA, PKFB1, and MA) and O2 beta activity (MB1, MB2, PKAB1, PKAB2). Negatively related arousal variables involved diffuse locations of RPT and frontal RPB2. Negatively related communication patterns involved T4CT and O2CB1.

Thornton, K. The Electrophysiology of Spatial math ability

Abstract

Background: Spatial Math addition (i.e. 49+19=?) is an important educational cognitive skill.

Aims: This research investigates the relation between quantitative EEG patterns and performance measures on spatial math addition problems (i.e. 49+19=?).

Sample: There are 84 subjects involved in the research divided into 2 groups (children under the age of 14, adolescents and adults over the age of 14). There are 43 males in the sample and 41 females.

Method: The subjects were requested to perform the double digit internal addition with their eyes closed while the quantitative EEG was being recorded.

Results: Successful task completion resides in the use of frontal phase beta1 (13-32 Hz) relations in children. In the adolescent and adult group successful performance relies upon the peak frequency of beta2 in frontal and right hemisphere (RH) locations. In the child group, the developmental changes indicate decreases in theta values (all locations) and decreases in coherence and phase relations predominantly involving the lower frequencies (4-13 Hz). In the adolescent and adult group there are developmental increases in coherence and phase relations (0-32 Hz) and increases in beta1 (13-32 Hz) and beta2 (3264 Hz) activity in terms of relative power, peak amplitudes, peak frequencies and magnitude values.

Conclusion: The QEEG offers meaningful data regarding this cognitive skill and shows the importance of frontal lobe activity.

Thornton, K. Electrophysiology of spelling

Abstract

This research explores the networks involved in the developmental of the quantitative EEG (QEEG) variables and their relations to spelling performance in two groups. In the child group the developmental pattern show increases in central /posterior relative power of beta1 (RPB1) (13-32 Hz) and peak frequency alpha (8-13 Hz) with decreases in central / posterior relative power of 0-8 Hz, peak amplitude and magnitude theta and phase alpha values, while central / posterior RPB1 variable positively related to performance.

In the adolescent and adult groups the developmental pattern involve increases (all locations) of beta variables (13-64 Hz) and communication patterns across the 0-64 Hz range, while theta to beta1communication patterns, left hemisphere theta communication networks were related to successful performance.

Thornton, K. Electrophysiology of recalling visual figures

Abstract

This research investigates the developmental patterns of visual memory for Korean figures and the relation between QEEG variables and performance across the encoding, immediate and delayed recall task for two groups (children, adolescents and adults). The dominant developmental pattern (child group) was one of increases in all locations for peak frequency alpha (8-13 Hz), central /posterior relative power of beta1 (RPB1) (13-32 Hz) and beta2 (RPB2) (32-64 Hz), left hemisphere (LH) RPB2 and increases in phase delta relations. The positive QEEG predictors during the encoding phase (for children) are central / posterior relative power of beta2 (32-64 Hz), while the variables negatively related to performance include posterior relative power of delta, phase delta flashlight activity from T6 and right hemisphere (RH) phase alpha.

For the adolescents and adult group the developmental patterns indicate increases in all locations for RPB1, RPB2, peak frequency theta (4-8 Hz), frontal beta levels and increases in coherence and phase relations primarily involving the theta and alpha (8-13 Hz) frequencies. The variables which are positively correlated with performance for the adolescent and adult group involve the central processing unit (coherence delta), left frontal flashlight activity (Fp1 phase beta1; F7 coherence alpha, phase theta, phase alpha, phase beta1), left posterior relative power of theta, left hemisphere (LH) coherence delta, alpha and phase beta1 (13-32 Hz). The immediate and delayed recall figures reflect different processes for the two groups (child vs adolescents/adults).

Thornton, K. The Enigmatic F4 Phase Alpha / Fp2 Phase Theta reversible on/off Switch

Abstract

The examination of the QEEG correlates across auditory and reading memory has been reported by the author in previous reports. The significant correlations between the QEEG variables and memory scores generally involve correlations which can range from .10 to .30, in part depending upon the size of the sample. These significant but low correlations reflect the nature of how the human brain functions in that many locations contribute to performance and no one location is a dominant predictor of performance. Generally, the coherence and phase relations from a specific location to all other locations are either all positive or negative. However, an interesting pattern in the auditory and reading memory tasks involves the F4 phase alpha relations and Fp2 phase theta to other locations as the correlations were 1) higher than the normal range of correlations; 2) simultaneously involve both negative and positive correlates; 3) the negative and positive correlation pattern was opposite when comparing the auditory to the reading memory task.

Thornton, K. Are Females more affected than males by a brain injury? A Quantitative EEG analysis.

Abstract

Context: Brain injuries present a significant problem in the sports and health fields.

Objective: To determine if there is an electrophysiological reason for the reported greater difficulty females experience after a concussion.

Design: The study examined the quantitative EEG patterns (QEEG) of male and female participants who had experienced a concussion.

Setting: The data was collected in an outpatient mental health setting.

Patients or Other Participants: The participants were patients of the author.

Interventions: EEG biofeedback interventions followed the initial evaluation and positive results are reported.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The EEG biofeedback intervention employed auditory and reading memory measures as outcome measures.

Results: The QEEG data indicated significant differences between the sexes in the beta2 (32-64 Hz) range for the coherence and phase values, the unique QEEG pattern of a brain injury

Conclusions: The QEEG has documented that females demonstrate significantly lower levels of coherence and phase relations in the beta2 frequency following a concussion.